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Theory/Model/ Principle of Learning Key ideas Advantages Disadvantages
Cognitivism Discovery-Piaget’s approach to learnings a readiness approach.according to Piaget, knowledge is not merely transmitted verbally but must be constructed and reconstructed by the learner.  

In cognitivism intelligence grows through the twin processes of assimilation and  accommodation.Teacher as facilitators of knowledge, they are there to guide stimulate the students.allow children to make mistakes and learn from

them. Laboratories, workshops and technologies that encourage interactivity  among students.Teachers can assess students strength and weakness.Cognitive le arning allows students to explore the material and develop a deeper understanding.It improve comprehension,develop problem solving,improve confidence and promote long term learning.This mke the cognitivism to promote learning better way.

In cognitive theory we cannot assess them directly,observe only on inference.When they use the laboratories to perform experiment Teachers cannot be sure that memory has changed as they could not observe memories, but only receive answers that are possibly the result.

For example, in science class when they perform  an experiment like protein test , students look for the result with colour change(if they  are not getting proper colour change  , students get chance to re do it  but they  are not getting the concept behind the colour change. From the results, the teacher  cannot assess each child’s deep understanding.

 It is not that effective for all types of individuals.It is uncomfortable for some individuals, especially those with learning difficulties and more complex mental health issues. It over look only behavioural fctors.It create uniform behaviour in a group of students.


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