Theory/Model/ Principle of Learning Key ideas Advantages Disadvantages



Developed by Malcolm Knowles in 1968.


1.problem orientation

2.Have experience

3.Internally motivated

4.Ready to learn

Self motivated

Andragogy is adult learning theory-adults tend to be more self-directed, internally motivated, and ready to learn.easy to get job

In this method a decrease in learners’ dependency improved procedures to help learning. Learners use  their own learning needs.



Lack of time

lack of money

Lack of confidence and interest.

Returning to school later in life does have some challenges.

Needs emotional and financial support from family.

Difficult to manage  education with job and family responsibilities.


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