|Theory/Model/ Principle of Learning||Key ideas||Advantages||Disadvantages|
|Constructivism||Active-Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in the process of meaning and knowledge construction. as opposed to passively receiving information.Constructivist theories Bruner’s theory of learning by discovery, Cognitive constructivism(Piaget),Social constructivism(Vygotsky)Subsumption theory(a usubel)
|Learner centered. Teacher as member of learning community. Teacher as Coach,mentor,facilitator.Learning as social,collaborative endeavor,assessment interwoven with teaching.Emphasis on discovering and constructing knowledge. Emphasis on application and understanding.Learning is as an active process & knowledge socially constructed.Pupil learn to learn as they learn.Constructivism nurtures the learners intrinsic motivation.Priority to how to learn than what to lern.It develops advanced skills such as critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, and creation.It encourages students to reflect, evaluate their work, and identify intermediary skills to acquire based on their needs.
|constructivist-based teaching methods require teachers to be an expert in child development.Iit requires costly and long term professional; development.They need to be able to understand students responses and make changes to the environment,when students are not making connection between concept.The classroom experience can develop into entertainment. Students exposed to this kind of teaching may be unprepared for the rigors — and occasional boredom — of the lecture-based teaching methods common in higher education. With an average number of students in one classroom, teachers are unable to customize the curriculum to each student, as their prior knowledge will vary.
For example: Introduce one topic to prove starch is present on green leaf. During this case students work as a group, pupils examine their own scientific ideas as their prior knowledge may vary so they cannot work out equally, teacher cannot customize the topic because constructivism giving more importance for group work. They restructure their ides, They test out their newly constructed ideas. Teacher cannot assess individual learning, teachers need to be more expertise.
There are four types of reinforcement: positive, negative, punishment, and extinction. We’ll discuss each of these and give examples. Positive Reinforcement. The examples above describe what is referred to as positive reinforcement. Think of it Read more…