State of being able to explain new events with existing schemes.
Changing the format of information being stored in memory in order to remember it more easily.
Inability to explain new events with existing schemes; tends to be accompanied by a sense of discomfort.
In Piaget’s theory, organized group of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in response to the environment.
a response increases in frequency as a result of being followed by reinforcement.
Responding to and possibly interpreting a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme.
fixed ratio (FR) schedule
rienforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
Concrete operations stage
Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.
rewarding or punishing one’s own behavior
Process of “finding” information previously stored in memory.
a stimulus that naturally evokes a paricular response
unpleasent consequences used to weaken behavior
people, as individuals, construct meaning from the events around them.
Demonstrating how to think about as well as how to do a task.
the teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Response that is elicited by a particular (unconditioned) stimulus without prior learning.
Stimulus that begins to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning. e.g., a buzzer regularly paired with the puff of air
Component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time.
withdrawl of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chance that the behavior will recur
a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
Focusing of mental processes on particular stimuli.
continuation (of behavior)
Knowledge of the meanings of words and word combinations.
perception of and response to differenced in stimuli
Overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes.
release from an unpleasant situation, given to stregthen behavior
Realization that if nothing is added or taken away, amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement.
events that precede behaviors
Zone of proximal development
Range of tasks that a child can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independently.
Community of learners
Class in which teacher and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn.
Phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another person is observed being reinforced for that response.
Act of following a response with a reinforcer.
A child’s performance, with guidance and support, of an activity in the adult world.
Support mechanism that helps a learner successfully perform a task within his or her zone of proximal development.
the weakening and eventural elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn
General understanding of what an object or event is typically like.
Knowledge and beliefs about one’s own cognitive processes, as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory.
a previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned response
Taxonomy of six cognitive processes, varying in complexity, that lessons might be designed to foster.
Cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it.
Cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.
variable ratio (VR) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time
Component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information.
Revision of one’s understanding of a topic in response to new information.
behavior that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward
procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced
Overly broad view of the objects or events that a concept includes.
Theory that depicts development as a series of relatively discrete periods (stages).
signals as to what behavior(s) will be reinforced or punished
a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
an unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors
Demonstrating a behavior for another; also, observing and imitating another’s behavior.
an adverse stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again
vioral learning theoriesexplanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
Approach to instruction similar to one students might encounter in the outside world.
Information processing theory
Theoretical perspective that focuses on how learners mentally think about (process) new information and events and how such processes change with development.
Phenomenon in which a response decreases in frequency when another person is observed being punished for that response.
Cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know.
cognitive learning theories
explanations of learning that focus on mental processes.
Prior knowledge activation
Process of reminding learners of things they have already learned relative to a new topic.
pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior
learning based on observation of the consequences of other’s behavior
Process of forming mental pictures of objects or ideas.
the increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction
social learning theory
people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, in which schemes are based largely on behaviors and perceptions.
Memory aid or trick designed to help students learn and remember a specific piece of information.
Conditioned response (CR)
Response that begins to be elicited by a particular (conditioned) stimulus through classical conditioning. e.g., blinking
Diagram of concepts and their interrelationships; used to enhance learning and memory of a topic.
learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships, and motivation is often the result of deficit-based drives.
Formal operations stage
Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development, logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as to concrete objects, and more sophisticated scientific and mathematical reasoning processes emerge.
Situated learning and cognition
Knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited if any use in other contexts.
praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without them
environment conditions that activate the senses
Phenomenon in which something a person has learned at one time affects how the person learns or performs in a later situation.
a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior
variable interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
Knowledge concerning how to do something (e.g., a skill).
learners construct (rather than absorb) a body of knowledge from their experience
Genetically determined age range during which a certain aspect of a child’s development is especially susceptible to environmental conditions.
Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, in which children can think about objects beyond their immediate view but do not yet reason in logical, adult-like ways.
a consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer
Bruner’s design for teaching that introduces the fundamental structure of all subjects early in the school years, then revisits the subjects in more and more complex forms over time.
Process of checking oneself to be sure one understands and remembers newly acquired information.
rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to rienforce participaiton in less enjoyable activites
Mutual cause-and-effect relationships among environment, behavior, and personal variables as these three factors influence learning and development.
imitation of others’ behaviors
Unfolding of genetically controlled changes as a child develops.
stumuli that have no effect on a particular response
Learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it.
Social learning theory
Theoretical perspective in which learning by observing others is the focus of study. Initially, this perspective focused largely on stimulus-response relationships. More recently, it has come to incorporate cognitive processes as well, hence its alternative name social cognitive theory.
learning by observation and imitation
Responding to a new object or event by either modifying an existing scheme or forming a new one.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on people’s collective efforts to impose meaning on the world.
Appearance of a new, developmentally more advanced behavior.
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
Knowledge related to “what is”—that is, to the nature of how things are, were, or will be.
food, water, or other consequence that satisfy a primary need
cognitive behavior modification
procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one’s own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction
carry over of behaviors, skills, or concepts from on setting or task to another
Component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief time (perhaps one to two seconds).