Standard 2

Knowledge of curriculum

Core curriculum

Body of knowledge , skills and attitudes expected to be learn to by all students

set of subjects and learning areas > common to all subjects.

that is languages ,maths, hearts, PE, science and SST .

competency based curriculum .

learner centered and Adaptive to the changing needs of students teaches and society.

It is usually designed around a set of key competencies which are Co curricular oh subjects bound .

culturally responsive curriculum .

curriculum which respects learners cultures and prior experiences .

Cross curricular approach.

Favours dynamic use of learning topics and themes to be covered and skills to be developed in a number of learning areas across the curriculum.

Curriculum adaptation.

Adjusting the existing curriculum to meet the diverse needs of learners of all abilities .

Curriculum goals.

Aims related to educational aims and philosophy.

refers to the accomplishment of groups rather than individual learners .

curriculum alignment .

ensure coherence and consistency between the intended outcome as specified in the formal curriculum add teaching methods , assessment task  and learning activities in the classroom .

Curriculum change .

Modification introduced in the curriculum to improve or adapt it to new circumstances or priorities .

curriculum coherence .

indicates the extent to which the curriculum aims and content as well as text books, teaching methods and assessment are all alliance and reinforce one another .

curriculum design

means runway

Latin word >originally meant chariot racing

came from the work >Curriere , means to run

3 basic types of curriculum ,ie curriculum design :

  1. Subject centered.
  2. Learner centered.

3.Problem centered .

4 major foundations of curriculum.

1.. Philosophical

2.Historical .

3.psychological .

4.social .

4 components of curriculum



3.evaluate .

4.revise .

learning theories- keyboards .


state of being able to explain new events with existing schemes .


changing the format of information being stored in memory in order to remember it more easily .


inability to explain new events with the existing schemes .


in Piaget’s theory ,Organised group of similar action or thought That are used to repeatedly in response to the environment .

5.operant conditioning .

a response increases in frequency as a result of being followed by reinforcement .


responding to and possibly interpreting a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme .

7.Fixed ratio schedule .

reinforcement schedule in which desired behaviour is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors .

8.Concrete operations stage

Piaget’s 3rd stage of cognitive development in which adult like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality .

9.self regulated learning .

rewarding or punishing once one’s behavior


process of finding information previously stored in memory .

11.unconditioned stimulus .

a stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response .

12.punishment .

unpleasant consequences used to weaken behaviour .

13.individual constructivism .

people construct meaning from the events around them .

14.cognitive modeling .

demonstrating how to think about as well as how to do a task .


teaching of a new skill or behaviour by means of reinforcement for small steps towards the desired goal.

16.Unconditional response .

response that is elicited  by a particular unconditioned stimulus without prior learning .

17.Conditioned stimuli .

stimulus that begins to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning .

18.long term memory .

component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time .

19.removal punishment

withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior ,designed to decrease the chance that the behavior will ricur.

20.unconditional response .

hey behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus .

21.attention .

focusing of mental process On particular stimuli


continuation of behavior

23.semantic knowledge

knowledge of the meanings of word and word combinations .


perception of and response to difference in stimulate

25.under generalization

overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes

26.negative reinforcer

release from an unpleasant situation ,given to strengthen behavior


realization that if nothing is added or taken away ,amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement .

28.Antecedent simuli.

events that precede behaviors .

29.zone of proximal development

range of task that a child can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independent day .

30.community of learners

class in which teacher and student activity and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn




Categories: Pedagogy


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